Primary Sources

Tower Theatre

Busby, Marquis. 1927. “TOWER THEATER DOORS OPENED: New First-Run Film House Is Model of Beauty Ceremony Brief as Owner and Screen Folk Speak ‘Gingham Girl’ and Vitaphone Occupy Program.” Los Angeles Times,October 14, 1927.

Los Angeles Times. 1926. “NEW THEATER PROJECTED: Southeast Corner of Eighth and Broadway Will Be Improved With Showhouse,” September 12, 1926.

———. 1927a. “THEATER LANDMARK RAZED: Crews Begin Wrecking, of Old Garrick Showhouse at Eighth and Broadway; New One to Rise,” March 6, 1927.

———. 1927b. “TOWER, NEW PLAYHOUSE, WILL OPEN: First-Run Photoplays to Be Presented; Premiere on October 12,” September 22, 1927.

———. 1927c. “East Applauds Leni Photoplay,” September 23, 1927.

———. 1927d. “FRENCH STYLE USED IN THEATER: Towered Unit Rising on Broadway,” September 25, 1927.

———. 1927e. “Table of Contents 1 — No Title,” September 25, 1927, sec. TELEGRAPH SHEET.

———. 1927f. “Refrigeration Is Installed,” September 27, 1927.

———. 1927g. “Weekly Change Meets Favor,” September 28, 1927.

———. 1927h. “First-Run Regime Begins Today,” September 30, 1927.

———. 1927i. “TOWER PLAY HOUSE WILL OPEN SOON: Architecture of Unique Design Is Main Feature; Many Innovations,” October 2, 1927.

———. 1927j. “Meeting Held at Criterion,” October 4, 1927.

———. 1927k. “Cinematic Fare,” October 9, 1927..

———. 1927l. “Tower Theater Designed to Typify Cinema Ideals: New Broadway Theater Is for Motion Pictures Only Theater for Pictures Only,” October 9, 1927, sec. FILMS.

———. 1927m. “Angeleno Helps Science of Skies,” October 10, 1927.

———. 1927n. “Display Ad 40 — No Title,” October 12, 1927.

———. 1927o. “GALA PREMIERE IS SCHEDULED: “The Gingham Girl” First Showing at Tower New Theater Is Unique and Beautiful Most Expensive of Size in Country,” October 12, 1927.

———. 1927p. “Cinematic Fare,” October 16, 1927.

———. 1927q. “‘Gingham Girl’ Director Tries for Comic Side,” October 16, 1927..

———. 1927r. “Proverb of Father, Son Found True,” October 17, 1927.

———. 1927s. “‘Woodley’ to Be Presented This Evening,” October 20, 1927.

———. 1927t. “DOG POPULATION GETS BOOST: Pair Hope to Start California Strain,” October 24, 1927.

———. 1927u. “DEMAREST IN PLAY’S LEAD ROLE: Vaudeville Man Now Acting Featured Part at Tower Theater,” December 11, 1927.

———. 1928a. “CITY, HOME OF PROSPERITY, EAGERLY HAILS NEW YEAR: Amazing Progress in Aviation, Sea Commerce, Manufacturing, Building and Farming,” January 1, 1928.

———. 1928b. “‘Terror’ Goes on at Tower for Birthday,” October 14, 1928.

Los Angeles Theatre

Babcock, Muriel. 1931. “Ultra Ideas to Feature Playhouse: EXPERIMENTS IN FILMS FLOURISH Picture Minus Men Latest Screenland Whim Brand New Fashion May Be Thus Established Trail-Breakers of 1930 Wandered Afield.” Los Angeles Times, January 18, 1931.

JONES, ISABEL MORSE. 1930. “MUSIC IS MADE FOR PLEASURE: Teachers Show Ability in Nonprofessional Orchestra.” Los Angeles Times, December 18, 1930.

Los Angeles Times. 1930a. “Innovations Mark Newest Theater: New Los Angeles Playhouse Luxurious Beyond Compare,” December 4, 1930.

———. 1930b. “CHAPLIN TO SHOW NEW FILM SOON: Latest Production of Picture Comedian to Open in January,” December 14, 1930.

———. 1931a. “Chaplin’s New Film Due,” January 4, 1931.

———. 1931b. “NAGEL WILL OFFICIATE AT EVENT: Noted Player to Act as Master of Ceremonies at Los Angeles Theater,” January 23, 1931.

———. 1931c. “‘City Lights’ to Shine,” January 25, 1931.

———. 1931d. “NOTABLES OF WORLD TO OPENING: Chaplin Premiere Draws Celebrities; New Theater to Be Dedicated,” January 25, 1931.

———. 1931e. “Business Men Pay Tribute to New Showhouse,” January 29, 1931.

———. 1931f. “‘CITY LIGHTS’ NO ORDINARY FILM: First Silent Picture Since ‘Talkies’ Came in Play, Music, Direction, All Charlie Chaplin’s Cinema World Buys First Tickets by Blocks,” January 29, 1931.

———. 1931g. “LOS ANGELES THEATER OPENS TOMORROW NIGHT: Chaplin’s ‘City Lights’ Will Be Given Premiere in New Film Palace of Unrivalled Beauty,” January 29, 1931.

———. 1931h. “STAGE SHOWS ALSO PLANNED: New Theater Will Present Prologues to Pictures Albert E. Short to Direct Offerings and Music Large Staff of Experienced Employees to Serve,” January 29, 1931.

———. 1931i. “Gala Event to Take Place at Belasco Soon,” January 30, 1931.

———. 1931j. “Preview Pandemonium,” February 2, 1931.

———. 1931k. “FIRST WEEK OF COLMAN FILM ENDS: “The Devil to Pay” at United Artists Proves Popular Vehicle,” February 12, 1931.

———. 1931l. “WHAT’S NEW IN SCIENCE: Conducted by Ransome Sutton University of California Is Developing New Acoustic Methods in Underground Room Series of Experiments. Dr. Pease Devises Sideshow for Theater Smokers, Deflecting Light from Main Screen to Smaller One in Smoking Room. Saving Ears and Nerves,” March 15, 1931.

———. 1931m. “Funeral Rites of A. S. O’Neil Will Be Today,” March 16, 1931.

———. 1931n. “CHEMIST TELLS OF STENCH BOMB: Police Epert on Stand in Armentrout Trial Ingredients Found on Knife Defendant Carried Picketing Action Waits End of Felony Hearing,” March 18, 1931.

Schallert, Edwin. 1931. “Premiere Jams Broadway.” Los Angeles Time, February 2, 1931.

Scheuer, Philip K. 1931. “THEATER IDEAL SOON TO OPEN: City’s New Showhouse Built on, Unique Specification Many Innovations Apparent With Completion Near Screen Miniatures Show Film in Lounges of House.” Los Angeles Times, January 18, 1931.

Special collections and websites

The UCLA Special Collections – S. Charles Lee Papers, 1919-1962

USC Digital Library

California State Library

Hume, Mike. Historical Theatre Photography.

Counter, Bill. Los Angeles Theatres.

Secondary Scholarship

Books and Articles

Leslie, Stuart W. 2017. “‘The Romance of Water and Power’: Architecture as Advertisement.” Southern California Quarterly 99 (3): 290–328.

O’Brien, Charles. 2019. Movies, Songs, and Electric Sound: Transatlantic Trends. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.

Paul, William. 2016. When Movies Were Theater: Architecture, Exhibition, and the Evolution of American Film. New York: Columbia University Press.

Valentine, Maggie. 1996. The Show Starts on the Sidewalk: An Architectural History of the Movie Theatre, Starring S. Charles Lee. New Haven: Yale University Press.

Wood, Bethany. 2019. Women Adapting: Bringing Three Serials of the Roaring Twenties to Stage and Screen. Iowa: University of Iowa Press.